Full-spectrum CBD oil is derived from cannabis plants that contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It has hundreds of cannabinoids that have many benefits. Broad-spectrum CBD — what is it, and how does it differ from other extracts? In this article, we have the answers to all your questions about this form of CBD. Your access to this site has been limited by the site owner If you think you have been blocked in error, contact the owner of this site for assistance. If you are a WordPress user with
What Is Full Spectrum CBD Oil And How It’s Used?
Cannabis products are all over the web and the mainstream media as thousands of people testify to their medical and recreational use efficacy. The market demand continues to surge and now competes closely with prescription drugs. There’s an increasing number of manufacturers that offer everyone a wide variety of brands. But while each formulation is unique, finding the best product nowadays can be challenging for many users.
If you have health issues, using full-spectrum CBD oil is one of the best solutions today, as marijuana doctors say. This is the cannabis product that’s best for medical purposes, especially for treating anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and all other serious illnesses. But like other alternative drugs, you have to research the properties and effects of the substance.
Remember that CBD products work differently for each person due to factors at play. As your guide on why full-spectrum CBD oil is a good treatment alternative and how it’s used, read on the following facts. You might discover convincing reasons to make a shift that would improve your general health.
What is Full-Spectrum CBD Oil?
It’s the most popular cannabis product that’s used for medical purposes. The substance is derived from cannabis plants containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a hallucinogenic compound. Full-spectrum CBD oil contains hundreds of other cannabinoids (CBD), offering therapeutic or healing effects when used correctly.
CBD advocates claim that the full-spectrum cannabis oil can create a powerful medical treatment when all the chemical elements produce an entourage effect. Such elements include healing properties, such as fatty acids, fibre, protein, and rich essential vitamins. Interestingly, it’s often compared with broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate that work differently to treat various medical issues.
In that sense, full-spectrum CBD products are widely recognized for their potent healing effect for severe medical conditions, including nerve and muscle pain, anxiety, depression, migraines, and other adverse health conditions. The substance has the following compounds that enable natural relief and treatment:
Full-spectrum CBD oil has more than 100 cannabinoids, including CBD and THC. These two significant compounds are responsible for the therapeutic and psychoactive effects of cannabis products. And CBD does not cause impairment, while THC can produce intoxication.
There are also over 150 terpenes in cannabis oil, which determines the fragrance and flavour of the substance. Terpenes are also known for their therapeutic effects that complement CBD and THC in healing.
Almost 20 different flavonoids are found in CBD oil. These elements can also be found in fruits, grains, and vegetables. Like terpenes, they also offer therapeutic effects, effectively relieving inflammation and cancer-related symptoms and acting as neuroprotective agents.
Health Benefits of Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
CBD products are growing in popularity mainly because of their health benefits to consumers. It can be used for various medical conditions and maintain general health. You can also use CBD oil for recreational purposes to provide relaxation and some therapeutic effects. But generally, here are a few perks that consumers love about the product:
CBD has analgesic properties that can relieve pain. The substance can reduce inflammation from the inside out and calm tension in the body. Using full-spectrum CBD oil, in particular, has been noted in a research review to be successful as a pain reliever. A study showed that the gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in hemp mitigated premenstrual syndrome (PMS) among female subjects. Many consumers also reported positive experiences from using the product when treating joint pain, muscle tension, arthritis, tendonitis, and other pain caused by aging or exercise.
Both young and old experience anxiety due to internal and external factors. When it becomes frequent, anxiety can already hamper normal functioning and productivity. If that ever happens to you, using full-spectrum CBD oil can offer some relief and treatment. CBD can relieve the symptoms of anxiety and promote a robust immune response. As found in a scientific study, people who use CBD oil become less anxious and cognitively impaired, especially those with social anxiety disorders.
If you have skin problems like acne, eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis, you can use CBD oil as a treatment option. The US National Library of Medicine claims that the substance is helpful for the treatment of these conditions. The product contains fatty acids and vitamins that help build and maintain healthy skin. Hemp oil also makes your skin develop resistance against viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Using the substance, your skin gets nourished and guarded against oxidation that causes signs of ageing.
Due to the demands of modern life, many people are not getting enough sleep. This lifestyle may cause some health drawbacks in the future. If you’re struggling to get quality sleep these days, you can use CBD oil that’s proven to improve sleep quality and reduce sleep difficulties. The CBD in full-spectrum hemp extract can relieve sleeplessness due to age or certain medical conditions. It also helps relax the mind and body and promotes a healthy stress response to achieve tranquillity.
High Blood Pressure Therapy
According to a study, CBD oil may reduce the risk of heart disease by relieving high blood pressure. It’s considered good complementary therapy for people who are genetically predisposed and triggered by stress and anxiety. But available evidence is still limited to confirm that the substance can treat or prevent the disease on its own. There’s ongoing research about this subject, but it’s already noted that CBD oil is a helpful alternative supplement.
People with substance abuse disorder may consider using CBD oil as well. This substance can offer relief and treatment based on several studies. The researchers noted that CBD showed promising results in treating people with cocaine, opioid, or psychostimulant addiction. It may also help treat cannabis and nicotine dependence, but more research is needed.
Alternative Drug for Seizures
CBD oral solution, like Epidiolex, is now approved for medical use in treating two rare forms of epilepsy in children. But there are disorders in which CBD’s effectiveness is still uncertain. The available evidence shows that CBD interacts with seizure medicines and boosts their concentration in the blood. However, more research is needed to confirm the efficacy and application of the substance.
How to Consume Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
There are several ways to consume CBD oil, including tinctures, capsules, and edibles. It’s essential to choose the proper method as it can affect the efficacy and potency of the substance. As your guide, here are the delivery methods commonly used for full-spectrum CBD oil:
Sublingual Method Using CBD Tinctures
CBD tinctures usually come in bottles or spray with different flavours to choose from. If you prefer this method of ingestion, you need to use an eyedropper to measure 1-2 drops of the substance. Then squeeze the drops under your tongue and hold the tincture in place for at least 60 seconds before swallowing. When it comes to spray, you only need to spritz it once on the inside of each cheek. You can expect to feel the effects in about 30 to 45 minutes.
Oral Ingestion Using CBD Capsules
If you are looking for an easy and convenient way to consume CBD oil, oral ingestion might be your best option. There are now CBD capsules that you can use anytime, but you should also check the label for recommended doses. You can experience the effects in about 30 minutes; however, the foods you consume around taking it can affect how the body absorbs the oil. While this method does not provide relief as quickly as others, they are the easiest way and ensure that you’re getting the exact dose each time.
Vaping CBD Oil to Feel the Effects Quickly
For a much quicker effect of CBD oil, you can go for vaping as a method of consumption. This can guarantee to take effect within 30 seconds of inhaling the substance. You can now use vape pens which are discreet and easy to use. There are also desktop vaporizers that can accommodate more significant amounts of herbs, but all devices involve heating the substance into a vapour that you can inhale. When you shop for these products, they guide proper usage. The instructions are self-explanatory and straightforward, but you have to make sure that you buy the device that suits your preference and needs.
Eating Edibles Infused with CBD Oil
A fun and delicious way of consuming CBD products is by eating them in the form of edibles, like candies, gummies, treats, and more. You can prepare these delicacies at home or buy them from a cannabis dispensary. It’s essential to follow the serving size directions and eat the edible. However, since the substance has to go through your digestive system, it may not work the same way as other CBD forms. More likely, you’ll experience the effects in about 2-4 hours.
Using a Topical Massage CBD Oil
For nerve and muscle pains, or skin diseases, you can consider applying CBD topical oils to the affected area. This massage oil is best for treating achy muscles and joints and chronic pain. All you have to do is put the oil-made cream onto the area you want to treat. You have to make circular motions of your fingers on your skin as you apply the substance. Once it’s used, you may notice less pain immediately, but it’s likely to take effect within 30 minutes to a few hours.
Getting the Right Dose of CBD Oil
Overdosing the product might result in adverse side effects. Hence, it’s always safe to stay within your tolerance level. As a beginner, you should necessarily start with lower doses and work your way up until the sweet spot is determined. To get the correct dose of CBD oil, here are a few things to keep in mind:
Check and Ask for Dosage Recommendation
When you buy CBD oil products, there is usually a recommended dosage stated on the packaging label. You may also see this information on the online store website where you buy the item. This is very important when you use the product for treating medical conditions. But in case of doubt, you have to ask your doctor to ensure your safety. Tell your doctor that you are planning to use CBD oil, then ask what products they can recommend and the proper dosage. It also helps to be open about your chosen delivery method to get expert opinions on the right option for your medical condition.
Consider Using an Online Calculator
As you browse CBD oil brands in online stores, you can take advantage of dosing calculators provided by some companies. You have to enter how many mL of oil the bottle has, how much you weigh, and how many mg of CBD oil the product contains. The digital calculator can use this information to estimate how much substance you need in each dose. This can help you get the most accurate dosing.
Stick with Smallest Dose that Provides Relief
Even if you use a digital calculator or ask for expert recommendations, you might still need to experiment a bit to find the correct dose of CBD oil. It’s always safe to start with the smallest dose, such as one puff of vapour, one drop of tincture, or one gummy edible. Observe how that dosage affects you. If you don’t feel the desired effects, consider increasing the dose and try again. This is because Full Spectrum CBD Oil (1000mg) may come in varying levels, so you have to determine the best dose for each one.
Possible Side Effects of Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
Although it’s rare for CBD oil to cause side effects, clinical research has shown that the substance can trigger adverse reactions. This usually happens when you take a large dose. But the side effects are generally mild and go away on their own. In severe cases, consider talking to a physician if you experience any of the following symptoms:
- Dry mouth
- Changes in mood
- Changes in appetite
If you have liver disease, consult your healthcare provider before taking CBD oil and use it with caution. The substance can increase liver enzymes. Hence checking your blood liver enzyme regularly is recommended in that case.
Likewise, pregnant and breastfeeding should avoid the product because of the potential risks to the baby’s development. While the effects are unclear, CBD can pass through the placenta.
It would be best to be careful about the possible interactions of the substance with certain drugs, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antifungals, among others. To avoid interactions, you should inform your doctor or pharmacist about the drug you’re taking. But most of these interactions are mild and don’t demand a change to your treatment.
Choosing the Right CBD Oil Products
There are different forms and brands of CBD oil, but the full-spectrum oils have several compounds from the cannabis plant. They include proteins, terpenes, flavonoids, and chlorophyll. When you shop for this product at a local shop or online store, here are a few things to check to ensure quality and safety:
Check whether the hemp is organic.
CBD and other compounds are extracted from hemp plants. The source of the product is significant as it determines the quality. You have to understand that hemp plants are dynamic bio-accumulators, or they quickly absorb every substance from the soil they grow in. When they are cultivated in clean and nutrient-dense soil, the hemp will yield good quality CBD flowers free of any contaminants. On the other hand, those mass-produced will yield poor CBD concentrations and possibly with the presence of toxins and heavy metals. To find out where the CBD oil was sourced, you have to research.
Check how the product was extracted.
There are many ways to extract CBD oil. But the gold standard in the industry is the CO2 extraction process. It involves pressurized carbon dioxide that pulls the cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant material without additional heat or toxic solvents. This technology ensures pure CBD extracts that have consistent potency throughout the batches. Ethanol extraction is an acceptable alternative, but it’s not as efficient as CO2 extraction for broad-scale manufacturing.
Check the third-party lab testing results.
When you shop at a local or online cannabis shop, always ask to see the product’s certificate of analysis. This document shows how a product went through tests checking for CBD and THC concentrations and the presence of any contaminants. It should come from a third-party laboratory that has no affiliation with the manufacturer to ensure unbiased results. Avoid buying the product if the local or online store doesn’t provide this information or refuses to share it.
Check other ingredients in the product.
Carrier oils are often added to CBD extracts to enhance their efficacy. Other ingredients may also be infused to boost the health benefits of the substance. You can find CBD oil with guarana for morning use, while others have melatonin or sleep-enhancing neurotransmitters. If the flavour of natural CBD oil doesn’t appeal to your taste, you can also find products with unique flavours, such as berry, vanilla, and citrus fruits. But when choosing CBD oil, make sure that the flavourings are natural and the substance doesn’t contain any harmful additives.
Where to Buy Full-Spectrum CBD Oil?
There are many stores, but shopping online might be the most convenient option. You can browse online cannabis shops and find the right product for you. Some companies offer free shipping and delivery for a certain amount of purchase. Why not go for this alternative when looking for your full-spectrum CBD oil?
One of the most trusted names in the cannabis industry today is Fusion CBD. We have popular brands for CBD oil, or you may also check other products on our online store. Our company maintains the highest standard of quality for our products and services. Contact us today!
Broad Spectrum CBD Oil, Capsules, Edibles: Definition & Benefits
If you’ve purchased CBD before, you may have noticed some are labeled as full-spectrum; others are broad-spectrum, or CBD isolate.
So, what does this mean?
In short, broad-spectrum CBD contains all the cannabinoids except for THC, but there’s far more to it than that.
If you’re still confused about what broad-spectrum means, how it’s used, and whether or not it’s the right CBD for you, read on to get your questions answered.
What is Broad Spectrum CBD Oil?
Broad-spectrum CBD oil, similar to full-spectrum CBD oil, contains CBD and a wide range of other cannabinoids and terpenes.
Unlike full-spectrum, broad-spectrum CBD contains no traces of THC.
Broad-spectrum CBD oil is excellent for people that want the benefits of a full-spectrum product without any THC.
When using a full-spectrum product, you run the risk of showing up positive on a drug test even though the percentage of THC is under 0.3%. With a broad spectrum product, there’s virtually no risk at all.
Benefits of Broad Spectrum CBD
When CBD is consumed, it can affect bodily functions in many different ways.
When broad-spectrum CBD is consumed, a wide range of other cannabinoids also affects the body.
CBD and other cannabinoids present in broad-spectrum CBD interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system . This signaling system is responsible for many functions within the body.
When these cannabinoid receptors are activated, several benefits may occur:
1. CBD Blocks Pain
CBD is renowned for its pain-relieving qualities.
People that suffer from chronic pain can benefit from CBD for this reason.
CBD can be consumed orally or used in the form of a topical to ease joint pain and sensitive skin directly at the source.
As one study suggests, using a wide range of cannabinoids is the best way to relieve pain symptoms .
Although pure CBD isolate is an effective pain-reliever, broad-spectrum CBD is far more effective due to the cannabinoids working together (the entourage effect).
2. CBD is an Anti-inflammatory
CBD has anti-inflammatory qualities.
Studies have discovered that when full- and broad-spectrum CBD is used in oral and topical forms, it can work as an anti-inflammatory .
Scientific and anecdotal research shows that CBD can reduce inflammation for a variety of conditions. Potential conditions it may help are psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema, acne, and more.
3. CBD May Prevent Nausea
Broad Spectrum CBD may prevent nausea.
Although there’s limited scientific evidence to prove this, patients suffering from nausea-related side effects from other medications have been using CBD to ease the symptoms for years.
It‘s especially popular with cancer patients looking to ease the side effects of invasive cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
4. CBD Has Neuroprotective Properties
The endocannabinoid system plays a huge part in the modulation of neurotransmitters. CBD interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting an effective treatment for neurological disorders.
There has been a lot of research into the neuroprotective benefits of CBD in epilepsy and multiple sclerosis patients.
One particular study found evidence that CBD and other cannabinoids reduce spasms in multiple sclerosis patients .
Although most of the evidence does suggest THC has the most promising effects on neurological disorders, broad-spectrum CBD has great potential as a neuroprotector.
5. CBD Aids Mental Health
CBD is popular among people with anxiety, severe stress, depression, and SAD (seasonal affective disorder).
One study, in particular, looked into the effects of CBD when administered to people with SAD . People with the disorder tend to suffer from anxiety, stress, and depression during the winter months due to light and weather changes.
6. CBD Has Many More Benefits…
CBD has many health benefits; some backed by science and some backed by personal experiences.
Research into CBD’s effects on certain conditions is limited. However, there’s a list of conditions with a large amount of scientific or anecdotal research into the effects CBD has on them.
Here are just a few other conditions people are using broad-spectrum CBD oil to support:
How to Use Broad Spectrum CBD?
There are many ways to consume and use broad-spectrum CBD.
How you use CBD is entirely down to you. What works for some may not work for others, so knowing what the options are along with their strengths and weaknesses is key.
1. Broad Spectrum CBD Oil
Broad-spectrum CBD oil is easily accessible and one of the best ways to consume CBD.
It’s taken via an eye-dropper and administered under the tongue. Drops of oil can also be added to food and drink as a supplement.
CBD oil gives you ultimate flexibility over your dosage.
You can control how much CBD you’re taking by simply adjusting how many drops you administer under the tongue or in your food.
2. Broad Spectrum CBD Capsules
CBD capsules come in dry forms and softgels. Both types provide you with a tasteless and accurate way to consume CBD.
You take them as you would with any supplement — swallowing with water.
If you’re looking for a hassle-free way to consume CBD with zero taste and zero sugar accurately, capsules are perfect.
3. Broad Spectrum CBD Edibles
CBD edibles are available in many forms.
They’re great if you can’t stand the taste of raw CBD oil and prefer medicating in a more relaxed and seemingly ordinary way.
Edibles such as gummies have an accurate dose of CBD per piece. They give you a controlled way to consume the cannabinoid, and you can monitor how much you’re taking very easily.
Bear in mind that most edibles contain sugar. This is not great if you’re looking to use CBD to lower blood sugar levels or lose weight.
4. Broad Spectrum CBD Vaporizers
CBD vaporizers use a CBD extract suspended in vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, and flavorings.
The liquid is vaporized and inhaled so the CBD can be absorbed through the lung tissue and into the bloodstream.
CBD is extremely bioavailable when vaporized. The cannabinoid is absorbed quickly and efficiently through the lung tissue. From here, it interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system.
There are some possible health risks with using CBD in this way. Research is limited, but there’s a possibility that inhaling vapor is harmful to the lungs.
If you suffer from a respiratory condition such as asthma, it’s not advisable to use CBD in this way.
5. Broad Spectrum CBD Topicals
CBD topicals are applied to the skin rather than ingested orally or inhaled.
Creams, balms, and gels are common, but bath bombs, soaps, and roll-ons can also be acquired.
If you’re suffering from an inflammatory skin condition such as eczema, psoriasis, or acne, CBD topicals are excellent.
Applying CBD directly at the source can reduce irritation, inflammation, and pain.
Broad Spectrum CBD Oil: How It’s Made?
There are many ways to extract cannabinoids from the hemp plant.
Most manufacturers use CO2 or ethanol extraction. These processes are considered safe when performed correctly and leave minimal chemical residues in the final product.
A final step is needed to remove the THC from the extraction fully. This process is called flash chromatography.
Let’s take a look into what each process entails:
1. CO2 Extraction
CO2 extraction is one of the best ways to extract CBD and other cannabinoids from hemp flowers. There’s little risk of leaving behind harmful residues in the final product when this process is done correctly.
Super-cold CO2 is held under high pressure and blasted through organic matter (like raw hemp).
As the CO2 is blasted through the hemp, the cannabinoids and terpenes are dissolved and collected as a liquid.
From here, the excess liquid is evaporated to leave behind a highly-concentrated CBD oil with a full cannabinoid profile (including THC).
2. Ethanol Extraction
When CBD is extracted with this method, high-proof pure alcohol is used.
The organic plant material from hemp is suspended in the alcohol for a certain amount of time. This releases the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other oils from the material.
The plant material is strained off to leave behind a liquid that’s infused with CBD and other cannabinoids (including THC).
Once the liquid is separated from the organic material, the excess liquid is evaporated to leave behind a highly-concentrated full-spectrum oil.
3. Flash Chromatography
Flash chromatography is the process used to isolate and remove the THC from the extract.
This process is complicated and requires extensive knowledge and skill in chemistry. Most manufacturers will not release this information, so it’s difficult to explain the process step by step.
What we do know is specific solvents are used to isolate and remove the THC from the extract. The process is prolonged and may require multiple “washes” to remove all traces of THC.
The process can remove some other cannabinoids alongside the THC, and the CBD content may be lowered during the process.
Although broad-spectrum CBD does contain a full cannabinoid profile (excluding THC), it doesn’t have the same cannabinoid percentages as full-spectrum CBD.
Does Broad Spectrum CBD Show up on Drug Tests?
CBD and other cannabinoids are not screened for, so if you’re using a truly broad-spectrum CBD oil with no traces of THC, you will not test positive on a drug test.
If you’re concerned about testing positive on a drug test and want to use CBD, using a broad spectrum is a great choice. Unlike CBD isolate, you still get the entourage effect to some degree without the THC.
Although broad-spectrum CBD oil shouldn’t contain any trace amounts of THC, it’s important to check lab-test results to be certain, especially if your job requires routine drug tests.
Is Broad Spectrum CBD Better Than Isolate & Full-Spectrum CBD?
Full-spectrum CBD is considered the most valuable CBD for a wide range of health conditions due to the full entourage effect.
CBD is far more effective when combined with all the other cannabinoids present in the hemp plant, including THC.
That being said, broad-spectrum CBD is still incredibly effective at treating a range of health conditions.
You still benefit from the entourage effect to some degree because although broad-spectrum CBD is THC-free, it does contain a wide cannabinoid profile.
Compared to CBD isolate (pure CBD without any other cannabinoids present), broad-spectrum CBD is worlds apart. CBD isolate is great for people who react badly to other cannabinoids, but you don’t benefit from the entourage effect.
Comparing CBD Extract Types
- Full-spectrum CBD comes in first because it provides the best cannabinoid profile.
- Broad-spectrum CBD comes in second place because it provides a good cannabinoid profile minus the THC.
- CBD Isolate comes in third because you do not benefit from the entourage effect.
Although we‘ve ranked the three types of CBD in terms of effectiveness, this doesn’t mean one is better than the other.
Some people can’t consume any THC due to regular drug screening or a negative reaction to the cannabinoid; in these cases, broad-spectrum is best.
Others react badly to a wide cannabinoid profile; in this case, CBD isolate is better.
Where Can You Buy Broad Spectrum CBD?
CBD is extremely accessible. Finding broad-spectrum CBD products in the United States and Europe is easy.
You can source broad-spectrum CBD oil and other products from dispensaries, health stores, and selected supermarkets.
However, the best way to source your CBD is online.
Purchasing CBD directly from the supplier cuts out the middleman. You’re guaranteed to get exactly what you came for and can look at lab reports as well as detailed descriptions of each product.
Buying online can save you money too.
Most CBD manufacturers offer discounts on monthly subscriptions, first-time buy offers, and seasonal discounts.
Does Broad Spectrum CBD Get You High?
Broad-spectrum contains no THC (the psychoactive compound in cannabis). Because of this, there is no chance of getting high. You will receive all the health benefits of the other cannabinoids without the psychoactive effects.
It’s worth mentioning that even though full-spectrum CBD does contain trace amounts of THC, it also doesn’t get you high.
To abide by federal laws, CBD products must contain less than 0.3% THC. This is far too little to have an impairing effect.
Final Thoughts: Is Broad Spectrum CBD Oil Worth Your Time?
Broad-spectrum CBD is definitely worth your time.
It contains a full cannabinoid profile without the THC, so if you’re worried about regular drug screening, it’s the perfect option.
It’s also perfect for hypersensitive to THC but not the other cannabinoids present in hemp.
If you fit either one of the statements above, broad-spectrum CBD is the right choice for you.
References Used In This Article
- Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system is an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological Reviews, 58(3), 389-462.
- Russo, E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult-to-treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245.
- Atalay, S., Jarocka-Karpowicz, I., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2020). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol. Antioxidants, 9(1), 21.
- Flachenecker, P., Henze, T., & Zettl, U. K. (2014). Nabiximols (THC/CBD oromucosal spray, Sativex®) in clinical practice-results of a multicenter, non-interventional study (MOVE 2) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity. European neurology, 71(5-6), 271-279.
- Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., … & Hallak, J. E. C. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121-130.
- Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., … & Hallak, J. E. C. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121-130.
Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.
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